VEAPSRandomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 3-year non-invasive arterial imaging primary prevention clinical trial to determine if vitamin E supplementation reduces the progression of atherosclerosis (carotid intima-media thickness) in healthy men and women 40 years and older.

Funding Sources

This study was supported by the National Institute on Aging and Hoffmann-La Roche, Inc.

Registered at under NCT00114387


Alpha-tocopherol supplementation in healthy individuals reduces low-density lipoprotein oxidation but not atherosclerosis: the Vitamin E Atherosclerosis Prevention Study (VEAPS).

Hodis HN, Mack WJ, LaBree L, Mahrer PR, Sevanian A, Liu CR, Liu CH, Hwang J, Selzer RH, Azen SP; VEAPS Research Group.


Epidemiological studies have demonstrated an inverse relationship between vitamin E intake and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. In contrast, randomized controlled trials have reported conflicting results as to whether vitamin E supplementation reduces atherosclerosis progression and CVD events.


The study population consisted of men and women > or =40 years old with an LDL cholesterol level > or =3.37 mmol/L (130 mg/dL) and no clinical signs or symptoms of CVD. Eligible participants were randomized to DL-alpha-tocopherol 400 IU per day or placebo and followed every 3 months for an average of 3 years. The primary trial end point was the rate of change in the common carotid artery far-wall intima-media thickness (IMT) assessed by computer image-processed B-mode ultrasonograms. A mixed effects model using all determinations of IMT was used to test the hypothesis of treatment differences in IMT change rates. Compared with placebo, alpha-tocopherol supplementation significantly raised plasma vitamin E levels (P<0.0001), reduced circulating oxidized LDL (P=0.03), and reduced LDL oxidative susceptibility (P<0.01). However, vitamin E supplementation did not reduce the progression of IMT over a 3-year period compared with subjects randomized to placebo.


The results are consistent with previous randomized controlled trials and extend the null results of vitamin E supplementation to the progression of IMT in healthy men and women at low risk for CVD.